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Josip Broz

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Josip Broz Tito (serbskja kirilika: Јосип Броз Тито, 7 Mai 1892 – 4 Mai 1980) bil načalnik Socialistja Federacja Republika Jugslaviaf ot 1945 do jego smertu vo 1980. Podčas Drugja svetovja vojna, Tito organizil protifašistja protivoborba znalnja kak Narodnjo dviganie za svobodenie ktorjo bil vedit Jugoslavju partizanum. Pozdue on bil osnovitelnij člen Cominformu,[1] ili odolil Sovietskij vliv (poglediš Titoism) i stal jedin ot glavnju osnovitelum i podporitelum bezaliancovju dviganiu.

Ranjo žitieEdit

Pred pervja svetja vojna i vo vojna Edit

Josip Broz se zrodil vo Kumrovecu, vo malij oblast Hrvatsku Zagorju vo Hrvatsku. On bil sedmjo dete Franju i Mariju Brozu. Jego otec, Franjo Broz bil Hrvatnic i jego matka Marija (zrodila kak Javeršek) bila Slovaknicku. Kak dete on žil so deda (otec jego mamu) vo selu Podsreda, vo 1900 on vstupil do primarju školu (čtiri klasi) vo Kumrovecu, on bil bezuspešnij vo drugij klas i končil školu vo 1905. Vo 1907, Broz načil rabotit kak učinik stroiniku vo Sisak. Tam on bil pritomnij trudovju dviganiu i slavnil 1 Mai - Den Trudu za pervjo vreme. Vo 1910, sviazil so soiuzu metalurgje trudniki, odnakuo vreme i socialdemokratja partia Hrvatsku i Slavoniu. Meždu 1911 i 1913, Broz rabotil za kratkje periodi vo Kamniku, Cenkovo, Munich, i Mannheim, gde rabotil za Benz automobilezavodu; potom on pošel do Wiener Neustadt, i rabotil kak testovij šofer za Daimler.

Vo osenu 1913, on bil rekrutilnij do Ostreih-ungarn voisko. Bil poslatnij do školu dla podprikazniki i stal seržant. Vo Mai 1914, Broz vigral srebrnju medalu na soperenie voiskovjo fehtenie vo Budapestu. Na načenie pervja svetovja vojna vo 1914, bil poslatnij do Ruma, gde bil zaderžilij za protivojnovja propaganda i zaklučilij vo Petrovaradinij krepgrod. Vo Januaru 1915, on bil poslatnij do vostočnju frontu vo Galiciu vojnat protiv Rosia. Raspoznal se kak sposobnij voiak i bil rekomendilij za voiskovij dekor. Na Paska 25 Marc 1915, bil vo Bukovinu silnuo poranilnij i pohitilnij Ruskimi.

Zaklučnik i revolucnikEdit

Posle trinaset mesaci vo lečilnu, Broz bil poslatnij do rabotnij tabor vo Gorni Ural gde zaklučniki izberili jego dla tabornij načalnik. Vo Februaru 1917, otvratnje rabotniki svobodili vse zaklučniki. Broz vstupil do Bolševnikskja grupa. Vo Aprilu 1917,on bil zvnovu zaderžilij, ali utečil i učastil se na Julskju denum demostraciu vo Sankt Peterburgu vo 16-17 Julum 1917. Na jego put do Suomi bil poimalij i zaklučilij tri tidenum vo Petropavlovskij krepgrod. On bil vnov poslatnij do Kunguru ali otbegil ot poezdu. Ukril se so Rosiskaja rodina vo Omsku na Sibiru gde vstretil jego buvremja svadžena Pelagija Belousova.[2] Posle Oktobrja Revolucia on vstupil do edinicu Červenju Gvardiu vo Omsku. Posle Belja proti ofenziva on otbegil do Kirgiztanu i pozdjuš se vernul do Omsku gde on svadil so Belousova. Vo Vesnu 1918 vstupil do jugoslavijotdel Komunistja parta Sovietju soiuzu. Vo Junu odnakju roču otidil ot Omsku iskat rabota dla podporu svoi rodzina, i bil naemilij kak mehannik blizuo Omsku na jedin roč. Vo Januaru 1920 on i jego svadžena zudelali dolgij put domu do Jugoslavia gde priehali vo Septembru.[2]

Posle jego vernutu , Broz vstupil do Komunistja parta Jugoslaviu. Vliv komunistja parta vo politika Korolstvo Jugoslaviu bistruo rastil. Vo 1920 glosonie, komunistniki vigrali ťí kresli vo parlamentu i stali se treti najsilaja parta. Vigrali mnogost mestje glosenie, oni nabili krepmesto vo drugij naiveljo mesto vo Jugoslaviu Zagreb , electing Svetozar Delić for mayor. The King's regime, however, would not tolerate the CPY and declared it illegal. During 1920 and 1921 all Communist-won mandates were nullified. Broz continued his work underground despite pressure on Communists from the government. As 1921 began he moved to Veliko Trojstvo near Bjelovar and found work as a machinist. In 1925, Broz moved to Kraljevica where he started working at a shipyard. He was elected as a union leader and a year later he led a shipyard strike. He was fired and moved to Belgrade, where he worked in a train coach factory in Smederevska Palanka. He was elected as Workers Commissary but was fired as soon as his CPY membership was revealed. Broz then moved to Zagreb, where he was appointed secretary of Metal Workers Union of Croatia. In 1928, he became the Zagreb Branch Secretary of the CPY. In the same year he was arrested, tried in court for his illegal communist activities, and sent to jail.[3] During his five years at Lepoglava prison he met Moša Pijade who became his ideological mentor.[3] After his release, he lived incognito and assumed a number of noms de guerre, among them "Walter" and "Tito".[2]

In 1934 the Zagreb Provincial Committee sent Tito to Vienna where the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia had sought refuge. He was appointed to the Committee and started to appoint allies to him, among them Edvard Kardelj, Milovan Djilas, Aleksander Rankovic, and Boris Kidric. In 1935, Tito traveled to the Soviet Union, working for a year in the Balkan section of Comintern. He was a member of the Soviet Communist Party and the Soviet secret police (NKVD). In 1936, the Comintern sent "Comrade Walter" (i.e. Tito) back to Yugoslavia to purge the Communist Party there. In 1937, Stalin had the Secretary-General of the CPY, Milan Gorkić, murdered in Moscow. Subsequently Tito was appointed Secretary-General of the still-outlawed CPY.

]</ref> Stalin was opposed to these provocations, as he felt the USSR unready to face the West in open war so soon after the losses of World War II. In addition, Tito was openly supportive of the Communist side in the Greek Civil War, while Stalin kept his distance, having agreed with Churchill not to pursue Soviet interests there. In 1948, motivated by the desire to create a strong independent economy, Tito modeled his economic development plan independently from Moscow, which resulted in a diplomatic escalation followed by a bitter exchange of letters in which Tito affirmed that Template:Quote The Soviet answer on May 4 admonished Tito and the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY) for failing to admit and correct its mistakes, and went on to accuse them of being too proud of their successes against the Germans, maintaining that the Red Army had saved them from destruction. Tito's response on May 17 suggested that the matter be settled at the meeting of the Cominform to be held that June. However, Tito did not attend the second meeting of the Cominform, fearing that Yugoslavia was to be openly attacked. At this point the crisis nearly escalated into an armed conflict, as Hungarian and Soviet forces were massing on the northern Yugoslav frontier.[4] On June 28, the other member countries expelled Yugoslavia, citing "nationalist elements" that had "managed in the course of the past five or six months to reach a dominant position in the leadership" of the CPY. The expulsion effectively banished Yugoslavia from the international association of socialist states, while other socialist states of Eastern Europe subsequently underwent purges of alleged "Titoists". Stalin took the matter personally – for once, and attempted, unsuccessfully, to assassinate Tito on several occasions. In a correspondence between the two leaders, Tito openly wrote: Template:Quote However, Tito used the estrangement from the USSR to attain US aid via the Marshall Plan, as well as to involve Yugoslavia in the Non-Aligned Movement, in which he assured a leading position for Yugoslavia. The event was significant not only for Yugoslavia and Tito, but also for the global development of socialism, since it was the first major split between Communist states, casting doubt on Comintern's claims for socialism to be a unified force that would eventually control the whole world, as Tito became the first (and the only successful) socialist leader to defy Stalin's leadership in the COMINFORM. This rift with the Soviet Union brought Tito much international recognition, but also triggered a period of instability often referred to as the Informbiro period. Tito's form of communism was labeled "Titoism" by Moscow, which encouraged purges against suspected "Titoites'" throughout the Eastern bloc.

As a result of the split with the USSR the Yugoslavian government established a prison camp on the Croatian island of Goli Otok for suspected pro-Soviet enemies of Tito and the CPY regime. In 1949, the entire island was officially made into a high-security, top secret prison and labor camp. Until 1956, throughout the Informbiro period, it was used to incarcerate political prisoners. They included known and alleged Stalinists, but also other Communist Party members or even regular citizens accused of exhibiting any sort of sympathy or leanings towards the Soviet Union. Some 10,000 people went through the camp. There are many witness accounts of brutality by prison guards, officers and staff.

On 26 June 1950, the National Assembly supported a crucial bill written by Milovan Đilas and Tito about "self-management" (samoupravljanje): a type of independent socialism that experimented with profit sharing with workers in state-run enterprises. On 13 January 1953, they established that the law on self-management was the basis of the entire social order in Yugoslavia. Tito also succeeded Ivan Ribar as the President of Yugoslavia on 14 January 1953. After Stalin's death Tito rejected the USSR's invitation for a visit to discuss normalization of relations between two nations. Nikita Khrushchev and Nikolai Bulganin visited Tito in Belgrade in 1955 and apologized for wrongdoings by Stalin's administration.[5] Tito visited the USSR in 1956, which signaled to the world that animosity between Yugoslavia and USSR was easing.[6] However, the relationship between the USSR and Yugoslavia would reach another low in the late 1960s. Commenting on the crisis, Tito concluded that: Template:Quote

Non-aligned YugoslaviaEdit


Template:See also

Under Tito's leadership, Yugoslavia became a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement. In 1961, Tito co-founded the movement with Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser, India's Jawaharlal Nehru, Indonesia's Sukarno and Ghana's Kwame Nkrumah, in an action called The Initiative of Five (Tito, Nehru, Nasser, Sukarno, Nkrumah), thus establishing strong ties with third world countries. This move did much to improve Yugoslavia's diplomatic position.

On 7 April 1963, the country changed its official name to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Reforms encouraged private enterprise and greatly relaxed restrictions on freedom of speech and religious expression.[7] In 1966 an agreement with the Vatican, spawned by the death of Stepinac in 1960 and the decisions of the Second Vatican Council, was signed according new freedom to the Yugoslav Roman Catholic Church, particularly to teach the catechism and open seminaries. The agreement also eased tensions, which had prevented the naming of new bishops in Yugoslavia since 1945. Tito's new socialism met opposition from traditional communists culminating in conspiracy headed by Aleksandar Ranković.[8] In the same year Tito declared that Communists must henceforth chart Yugoslavia's course by the force of their arguments (implying a granting of freedom of discussion and an abandonment of dictatorship). The state security agency (UDBA) saw its power scaled back and its staff reduced to 5000.

On 1 January 1967, Yugoslavia was the first communist country to open its borders to all foreign visitors and abolish visa requirements.[9] In the same year Tito became active in promoting a peaceful resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict. His plan called for Arabs to recognize State of Israel in exchange for territories Israel gained.[10]

In 1967, Tito offered Czechoslovak leader Alexander Dubček to fly to Prague on three hours notice if Dubček needed help in facing down the Soviets.[11]

In 1971, Tito was re-elected as President of Yugoslavia for the sixth time. In his speech in front of the Federal Assembly he introduced 20 sweeping constitutional amendments that would provide an updated framework on which the country would be based. The amendments provided for a collective presidency, a 22 member body consisting of elected representatives from six republics and two autonomous provinces. The body would have a single chairman of the presidency and chairmanship would rotate among six republics. When the Federal Assembly fails to agree on legislation, the collective presidency would have the power to rule by decree. Amendments also provided for stronger cabinet with considerable power to initiate and pursue legislature independently from the Communist Party. Džemal Bijedić was chosen as the Premier. The new amendments aimed to decentralize the country by granting greater autonomy to republics and provinces. The federal government would retain authority only over foreign affairs, defense, internal security, monetary affairs, free trade within Yugoslavia, and development loans to poorer regions. Control of education, healthcare, and housing would be exercised entirely by the governments of the republics and the autonomous provinces.[12]

Tito's greatest strength, in the eyes of the western communists, had been in suppressing nationalist insurrections and maintaining unity throughout the country. It was Tito's call for unity, and related methods, that held together the people of Yugoslavia. This ability was put to a test several times during his reign, notably during the so-called Croatian Spring (also referred to as masovni pokret, maspok, meaning "mass movement") when the government had to suppress both public demonstrations and dissenting opinions within the Communist Party. During the Spring, on December 22, 1971 in Rudo Broz allegedly said, "The Sava will flow upstream before the Croats get their own state".[13][14][15] Despite this suppression, much of maspok's demands were later realised with the new constitution.

On 16 May 1974, the new Constitution was passed, and Josip Broz Tito was named President for life.

Foreign policyEdit

Tito was notable for pursuing a foreign policy of neutrality during the Cold War and for establishing close ties with developing countries. Tito's strong belief in self-determination caused early rift with Stalin and consequently, the Eastern Bloc. His public speeches often reiterated that policy of neutrality and cooperation with all countries is natural as long as these countries are not using their influence to pressure Yugoslavia to take sides. Relations with the United States and Western European nations were generally cordial.

Yugoslavia had a liberal travel policy permitting foreigners to freely travel through the country and its citizens to travel worldwide.[7] This was limited by most Communist countries. A number of Yugoslav citizens worked throughout Western Europe.

Tito also developed warm relations with Burma under U Nu, traveling to the country in 1955 and again in 1959, though he didn't receive the same treatment in 1959 from the new leader, Ne Win.

Because of its neutrality, Yugoslavia would often be one of the only Communist countries to have diplomatic relations with right-wing, anti-Communist governments. For example, Yugoslavia was the only communist country allowed to have an embassy in Alfredo Stroessner's Paraguay.[16] However, one notable exception to Yugoslavia's neutral stance toward anti-communist countries was Chile under Augusto Pinochet; Yugoslavia was one of many left-wing countries which severed diplomatic relations with Chile after Allende was overthrown.[17]

Final years and aftermathEdit

After the constitutional changes of 1974, Tito increasingly took the role of senior statesman. His direct involvement in domestic policy and governing was somewhat diminishing.

On January 7 & again on January 11, 1980, Tito was admitted to Klinični center Ljubljana (the clinical center in Ljubljana, Slovenia) with circulation problems in his legs. His left leg was amputated soon afterwards. He died there on 4 May 1980 at 3:05 pm. His funeral drew many world statesmen.[18] Based on the number of attending politicians and state delegations, at the time it was the largest statesman funeral in history.[19] They included four kings, thirty-one presidents, six princes, twenty-two prime ministers and forty-seven ministers of foreign affairs. They came from both sides of the Cold War, from 128 different countries.[20]

At the time of his death, speculation began about whether his successors could continue to hold Yugoslavia together. Ethnic divisions and conflict grew and eventually erupted in a series of Yugoslav wars a decade after his death. Tito was buried in a mausoleum in Belgrade, called Kuća Cveća (The House of Flowers) and numerous people visit the place as a shrine to "better times".

The gifts he received during his presidency are kept in the Museum of the History of Yugoslavia (whose old names were "Museum 25. May," and "Museum of the Revolution") in Belgrade. The collection includes works of many world-famous artists, including original prints of Los Caprichos by Francisco Goya, and many others.[21] The Government of Serbia has planned to merge the museum into the Museum of the History of Serbia.[22]

During his life and especially in the first year after his death, several places were named after Tito. Several of these places have since returned to their original names, such as Podgorica, formerly Titograd (though Podgorica's international airport is still identified by the code TGD), which reverted to its original name in 1992. Streets in Belgrade, the capital, have all reverted back to their original pre-World War II and pre-communist names as well. In 2004, Antun Augustinčić's statue of Broz in his birthplace of Kumrovec was decapitated in an explosion.[23] It was subsequently repaired. Twice in 2008, protests took place in Zagreb's Marshal Tito Square, with an aim to force the city government to rename it ("Krug za Trg" (eng. Circle for the Square), while a counter-protest ("Građanska inicijativa protiv ustaštva" eng. Citizens' Initiative Against Ustashizm) accused the "Circle for the Square" for historical revisionism and neo-fascism [1]. In the Croatian coastal city of Opatija the main street (also its longest street) still bears the name of Marshal Tito. Marshal Tito Street in Sarajevo is shortened but is still the main street.


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